The methods of Line Class are:

function Line(nx1:Number, ny1:Number, nx2:Number, ny2:Number)

The constructor. Used to set the values of an Line object.

function addConnection( point:Boolean, mov:Number, Line:Number, point_destiny_line:Boolean)

Adds a connect to the listConnections array. These connections will be used the maze engine to move the points inside the maze (the connects define what movements are possible and what are not; where the maze walls are).

function InTheBeginning(x, y)

Verifies if the given point (x, y) is the beginning of the line. It is important to note that the comparison is not exact: the static var Tolerance is used for that the player not be obrigated to put its character exactly in the line beginning.

function InTheEnd(x, y)

Similar to InTheBeginning().

Connection Class

As is has been said, represents the movements possibles from the beginning or the end of one line. Its structure is the following:

`class Connection {        var bPoint:Boolean; // this connection is in the end or in the beginning of the line?        // (for these field we use the values defined in the Line class)                var nMovement:Number; // what movement is represented by the connections.        // the values used are defined by the Direction class.        var nLine:Number; // for what line this connections goes        var bPointDestinyLine; // in the beginning or in the end of the destiny line?}`

Connection methods:

function Connection(connection_point:Boolean, mov:Number, destiny_line:Number, line_point:Boolean)

Builds a Connection object with the given values.

Direction Class

This class was created only for set the values for the directions (up, down, right, left) used ty the engine. Its structure is:

`class Direction {        static var Up:Number = 1;        static var Down:Number = 2;        static var Left:Number = 3;        static var Right:Number = 4;}`

Position Class

This class "is" the maze engine, i.e., it contains the biggest part of the code of the engine. It is used to represent the point that moves inside the maze. A Flash game can use several Position objects. Think about the PacMan game: the Pacman and about five monsters move inside the same maze. So, a PacMan that used this engine would have six Position objects, sharing the same maze.

Here is the structure of the Position Class:

`class Position {        var mcMovie:MovieClip; // the movieclip with the object        // in the screen        var x:Number = 0;        var y:Number = 0;        var nLine:Number = -1;        var nDirection:Number = 1;        var bBeginning:Boolean = true;        var bAutomatic:Boolean = false; // if the connections are        // done in response to the user actions or if they must        // be done automatically (in the case of PacMan game,        // this field would be true for the monsters and false to        // the PacMan, moved by the user)        static var maze:Array; // the maze (this is an array of        // Line objects);        private static var Step:Number = 5; // how many pixels are        // there in a step?        private static var bMazeDone:Boolean = false;        // when the first Position object used by a Flash game        // is created, the maze is created too.        // But this has to be done just once}`

How the Engine Works

The engine works processing the movements of the Position object inside the maze. This movements can be generated by the user (through some scripts that process the keyboard input) or by the game, in the case of objects that are not moved by the user. These movement have to be confronted to the maze (the group of Line objects, in the maze Array) by the engine, that decides if these movements can or can't be done. So, the game communicates with the maze engine through four functions that make the Position object move inside the maze: Up(), Down(), Right(), Left().

Building the maze

Before these four functions, the game's creator has to deal with the maze member of Position class. All the other engine stuff can be ignored by the programmer.

The maze element is an Array object, that contains several Line objects, one Line for one segment in the maze. Personally, I recomend you draw tha maze, break it in the minimum segments needed, and numerate them, as in the following picture:

After doing that, you need to write the code that will build the necessary Line objects. This code is in the createMaze() method of Position class:

`private function createMaze(){        maze = new Array(12); // you need to create an array // as large as your maze        maze[0] = new Line(0,0,2,0); // one segment        // the connections from the end and from the beginning of        // this segment. Set carefully the direction, the destiny        // line and the point in the destiny line        maze[0].addConnection(Line.Beginning, Direction.Down, 2, Line.Beginning);        maze[0].addConnection(Line.End, Direction.Down, 3, Line.Beginning);        maze[0].addConnection(Line.End, Direction.Right, 1, Line.Beginning);                ...}`

I have created another function, scaleMaze(), that moves and scales the maze coordinates, so it stays with the right size in the screen.

The methods of Position Class

function Position(strMovie:String, line:Number, beginning:Boolean, direction:Number, automatic:Boolean)

The class constructor. If the maze hasn't been built yet, the function createMaze() is invoked. After, an instance of the movie with the strMovie name is created in the stage; this will be the character controlled by the Position object. The line and the beginning parameters set the character's place in the maze. The direction and the automatic parameters are used in the case of characters that are controlled by the computer, i.e., that move by themselves, in the user point of view.

function MakeConnection(connection:Connection)

Invoked by another functions of Position class, is doesn't need to be used by the game itself. It changes the actual line, in the maze, of the character.

functions MakeConnectionAutoBeginning() and
MakeConnectionAutoEnd()

These functions works as MakeConnection, but for the characters moved by the computer. They randomly choose the connection to be done.

functions Up(), Down(), Right() and Left()

These are the Position methods that need to be invoked by the function that processes the user's input. They move the character, if possible. If not, they try to make a connection in the respective direction. If there is no connection available, they make nothing, and the user has to change its direction, for move his/her character.

function updateMovie()

Sets the coordinates of the MovieClip object that is controlled by the Position.

private function createMaze() and scaleMaze()

They have been described above.

Using the Maze Engine

The sample movie show a very simple use of the maze engine, but all the basic concepts are there: there is a function that processes the keyboard input, and calls the correspondents functions of the maze engine. That is the code in the first and only one frame of the movie:

`function procKeyboard(){        if (Key.isDown(Key.LEFT))        posPacMan.Left();        if (Key.isDown(Key.RIGHT))        posPacMan.Right();        if (Key.isDown(Key.UP))        posPacMan.Up();        if (Key.isDown(Key.DOWN))        posPacMan.Down();}// PacManSizeOk is the movie with the PacMan in the right size.// You need to set it to be exported for ActionScriptvar posPacMan:Position = new Position("PacManSizeOk",0,Line.Beginning,Directio.Down,false);someListener = new Object();someListener.onKeyDown = procKeyboard;Key.addListener(someListener);stop();`

Conclusion

If you look at the work PacMan 1.0, you will see that the maze engine created in SVG has a feature missing in this maze engine, built in Flash: when the PacMan is near of some screen edge, the PacMan stops to move, and the maze moves. I am implementing this feature in some of the works of my new net art project, PacMan and the Minotaur (www.rgbdesigndigital.com.br/atravesdoespelho/pacman_minotauro), but I think this can be done easily. You can see the SVG code to understand how to implement it in this engine.

Others developments possible are the use of diagonal lines and (the most difficult) curves. I don't have the mathemmatic skills nedeed to make that but, if anybody can do it, please, I would like to see the results.

Contact

If you have some doubt or wants to make a comment, feel free to send me a private message or an email to . Bye.